English

by in Language documents 2019-09-15

English

IELTS: International English Language Testing System

IELTS: IELTS or the International English Language Testing System is an English language exam and is internationally accredited. This test is a measurement for evaluating English language proficiency of people who wish to study, work or immigrate to English-speaking countries. The IELTS exam is being held in collaboration with the University of Cambridge, the British Council and the IDP Australia. It meets the highest and most reliable international standards for English language proficiency and evaluates four abilities of Writing, Reading, Listening and Speaking.

The score ranges from 2 to 9, means there is no pass or fail, but generally speaking score 5 is considered as average and 6 and above it is considered as good. Cambridge, Oxford, and Harvard University accept at least IELTS 7.

 

IELTS exam consists of 4 parts: listening, reading, writing and speaking. There are two types of IELTS- Academic and General Training. IELTS Academic is more difficult than the general one and this is the test that is required to enter universities.

 

TOEFL: Test of English as a Foreign Language, a test that measures the extent to which individuals are able to communicate in English at universities and educational institutions.

 

PBT paper test

As the name of this test is clear, candidates are required to answer the questions in the test booklet. This test has been replaced by Ibt (the internet test) and in fact will be completely abolished in near future. The paper exam tests three language skills:
• Listening Comprehension
• Structure and Language
• Reading Comprehension
In addition to the above three skills, there is a writing skill section that the candidates should be able to write on a specific topic within 30 minute. The scores obtained from each section are summed up after scaling and determined the total score of the candidates. This score can vary from 310 to 677.

 

Ibt internet test

This test was introduced late 2005 and significantly replaced the other two types of “computer-based” and “booklet-based”. The test was initially held in the US, Canada, France, Germany and Italy, and has gradually progressed to other countries since 2006. The “computer-based” test, or CBT, was stopped in September 2006.

 

In this type of test, participants must attend the test site on specified dates and take the test online. The validity of this test is the same as the old TOEFL exams, but this test has some differences, including:

 

• Unlike the older TOEFL which more emphasis on grammar, this test covers all language skills.
• The time interval between taking the test and getting a test results online is about two weeks.
• The test is held several times a month and candidates have more freedom to choose the test date.
It is a 4-hour test with 4 sections. Each section may test one or even several skills. In this type of test, unlike the manual-based method, note taking is allowed. This test cannot be held more than once a week. It should be noted, however, that one or more sections may be presented longer (longer than usual). For this reason, it is unclear which part of the questions is actually corrected and included in the score. The questions are chosen randomly.

 

1. Reading Comprehension

This section contains 3 to 5 long texts and questions about these texts. Topics are academic and usually found in academic books. The questions are mainly about main subject of the text, details, inferences, sentence simplification, replacement of the sentences, synonyms. In ibt exam, the candidates must have skills such as summary writing, quick inference of main ideas, and tabulation. Generally, there is no need for background information but prior information can be helpful.

 

۲. Listening Comprehension

This section contains six texts; two of them are students’ conversations and four texts simulating academic classroom and discussions.

 

۳. Speaking Comprehension

This section comprises six sections; two independent sections, each with a question about academic life and the students must talk about them. Other four sections are integrated with reading and listening. In these sections, the candidates should talk about the text summary he/she is reading or hearing, or express his/her new ideas about these texts. These conversations should be precise, clear and have a detailed analysis of the information provided.

 

۴. Writing Comprehension

This section consists of two parts; an integrated part and an independent part. In the integrated section, the candidates should read the academic text, then listen to the rest of it, and after that write his/her interpretations about text. In the independent section, the candidates also write an essay on given question.

 

Each skill score between 0 to 30, and the total score is among 0 to 120. The score 79 or 80 is equivalent to the score of 550 of paper exams which is required for accepting at postgraduate degrees at most universities.

 

GRE test

The GRE is abbreviation of the Graduate Records Examination. As the name implies, the purpose of this test is to measure the graduates’ abilities and knowledge. This test is usually required for admission to the postgraduate level. Getting high score in this test is one of the qualifications of American and Canadian universities, because they believe that students must have the ability to percept and understand difficult general texts of political issues in addition to learning scientific and specialized materials.

 

The test is held in two levels, General and Subject, which has three parts of verbal, quantitative, and analytic. In the linguistic section, it is often asked about opposite and synonym of difficult words and in fact it only depends on the amount of students’ vocabulary. The words are really difficult and unfamiliar to the most of students. In the quantitative section, relatively simple mathematical questions are asked to evaluate students’ basic abilities. In the analytical section, a controversial topic is analyzed and wrote down. That is, one is asked to write a text on a specific subject and to express personal analysis

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